Canterbury and District Historical Society s2 n08
FOREWORD (S2 N8)
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the National Heritage, and at the same time, local history interest has increased considerably.
To satisfy this new sympathy for the past, local Historical Societies have developed a number of means of giving to members and the community the information on historical matters desired. Some societies have thriving local history museums, usually based in an historic building, and containing a variety of manufactured items used in the past, costumes, photographs and other displays. They have continued the address on general history by visitors qualified in their particular field of study, and they continue to issue newsletters, bulletins, booklets and journals. Recently, the use of community access radio has offered the opportunity to reach a much wider audience, and concurrently the use of cassette tapes could ensure that local groups, particularly schools, have immediate access to historical information in a new and appealing form.
Meanwhile, this Society continues to publish its Journal to give to its members, friends and the general public the benefit of the research of our members. In this issue, you will notice three short, authentic stories, which were written especially for the young. There are also many items directed more towards our older readers. We hope you will find them interesting and instructive.
- 1 STONELESS BAY & HARCOURT
- 2 ATTACK BY NATIVES - PUNCHBOWL 1809
- 3 BOYS
- 4 CAMPSIE PUBLIC SCHOOL
- 5 RECOLLECTIONS OF EARLY CAMPSIE
- 6 JOSEPH HOLT & CANTERBURY 1800-1801
- 7 FIFTEEN MINUTES FROM SYDNEY
- 8 POST OFFICE IN KINGSGROVE
- 9 BELMORE
- 10 WHEN THE HORSE & HORSE-DRAWN ERA ALMOST CAME TO AN END
- 11 THE DISTRICT IN 1848
STONELESS BAY & HARCOURT
GRANT to THOMAS CAPON
DISTRICT Of BOTANY BAY
Unto THOMAS CAPON his heirs and assigns to have and to hold for ever, Two Hundred Acres of land, being and situate in the District of Botany BAY, bounded on the east side by the road leading to Mrs. Laycock's "KINGSGROVE FARM", on the south-west side by Redman's "JOHNS FARM", bearing west, thirty-five degrees south forty-two chains......on the south-west side by a line bearing north twenty-five degrees west to COOK'S RIVER, and, on the north side by that River.
To be called "STONELESS BAY."
CONDITIONS: not to sell or alienate the same for the space of five years from the date thereof and to cultivate Thirty-five Acres within the said period and reserving to Government the right of making a Public Road through the same, and also reserving for use of the Crown, such timber as may be deemed fit for Naval purposes......Quit rent Four Shillings.
In Testimony This 11th Day of September 1817. Signed LACHLAN MACQUARIE. Witnesses: J. J. Campbell J. McGill Ref: LAND GRANT BOOK No. 2. Registrar General's Office.
On the 18th November, 1817, the land described as "Stoneless Bay", Thomas Capon's Grant of 200 acres, passed to John Redman, for a consideration of £50. This was by Deed Poll, the document was witnessed by Michael Robinson and James Foster.
Ref.: Memorial at Registrar General’s Office. Book G — No. 804.
So Thomas Capon passes out of the History of the District of Botany Bay. As this article is concerned only with the story of Stoneless Bay and Harcourt, my interest in Thomas Capon was more curiosity for the reason of the 200 acre Grant. It was far larger than any other in this area at that time.
There does not seem to be any evidence that Thomas Capon was ever here in the Colony of N.S.W., but there is mention in the Historical Records of Thomas Capon in Van Diemen's Land.
Governor Macquarie paid a lengthy visit there in 1811-12. He may have for some reason promised a land grant, perhaps for some service rendered.
In the Bigge Appendix-Birth Returns 1816—21, it records that Thomas Capon's wife gave birth to a daughter in June, 1818. In 1821, he was appointed District Constable of Glenarchy, still later in 1831, he was appointed Chief Constable of Hobart Town. He seems to have become more prominent in society after the 1817 Land Grant, as is shown in the report by Lieut. Governor Col. Sorell to Commissioner Bigge, regarding the distribution of pews in St David's, Hobart, where "rank and property of person" were general guides. Thomas Capon's pew was only about tenth back, on the Military side of the Church.
But the fact remains that his land in the District of Botany Bay was disposed of just two months after being granted. He may have originally intended taking up his grant here, but better prospects may have presented themselves in Hobart, to change his mind.
When John Redman purchased "Stoneless Bay", he was Chief Constable at Sydney, with a salary of £60 per annum.
JOHN REDMAN arrived in the Colony in 1790 by the "Surprise", he was a prisoner of the Crown, with a sentence of fourteen years. By 1802, he had been granted his freedom and was appointed Head Constable at Sydney to succeed Henry Kable.
He became the owner of a small vessel in 1807, it was built here in Sydney, the "Charming Sally". The Sydney Gazette reported that it was plying between Sydney and the Hawkesbury River. Apparently John Redman must have been able to amass enough money, or credit, to build the vessel and so participate in coastal trading, which must have shown a good return.
It was probably during these years that he purchased an allotment of ground in Lower George Street and built a rather solid, commodious house of two storeys. Joseph Fowles in his book "Sydney in l848", sketched the house and noted that it was a very early building. It appears to have been located on the western side of George Street - possibly near what is now Grosvenor Street.
In September, 1812, At St. Phillips, Church Hill, John Redman was married to Mary George, who had arrived in 1810 by the "Canada", with a life sentence, but she later received an absolute pardon.
Over the next few decades, "the sun must have shone brightly" for the Redmans, true they were probably hard years, but they were blessed with a family of five sons and two daughters. The position of Chief Constable was held by John Redman until about 1821, when he was given the position of Chief of H. M. ’s Gaols, and became responsible for the up keep of all the Gaols. Meanwhile, Mary Redman had been set up in George Street as the Licencee of a Public house, which she seemed to have continued with well into the 1830’s.
Both John and Mary Redman applied for and received grants of land, all in the District of Botany Bay. They also added to their grants by purchase, as we see by John Redman's acquisition of "Stoneless Bay". By 1830 he owned about 400 acres of land, stretching from what is now Beamish Street along Cook’s River to approximately Burwood Road, Belmore, up beyond the railway line, back to Evaline Street, and down to Beamish Street.
John Redman retired from the Colonial Service in 1832 and was awarded a pension of £70 per year. He was then just about 70 years of age.
John Redman died in November, 1837,the following notice appeared in the "Sydney Herald" a few days later:
- "John Redman of Liverpool Street, died on 26-11-37, an advanced age. He was a very old and respected colonist. For many years Governor of H.M. Gaol."
When John Redman died his youngest son was only ten years old; his wife, Mary, had the task of administering all the properties and bringing up the younger children. Perhaps at this stage it would be helpful to show the 1828 Census return, showing the Redman family.
JOHN REDMAN 65 years Publican George St.
MARY 35 years George St.
JOHN Jnr. 16 years George St.
MARTHA 14 years George St.
JOSEPH 12 years George St.
EDWARD 10 years George St.
ROSAMOND 9 years George St.
WILLIAM 5 years George St.
ROBERT 1 ½ years George St.
In John Redman’s Will, dated 30th December, 1835, he directed that his widow, Mary, be given all his properties and lands, he directed that she, in her good judgment, would allocate various lands to their children. But there was one reservation only that the Estate, "Stoneless Bay", would eventually go to his youngest son, ROBERT HARRIS BLAND REDMAN, when he reached maturity.
In a special agreement made in 1849, when ROBERT H. B. REDMAN reached 21 years of age, Mary Redman, widow of John Redman, was legally given the right to reside on the property "Stoneless Bay" and to collect all revenue from the farm for a period of 30 years from that day. The agreement was signed by her son, Robert, now the legal owner.
It was stated in the Memorial that Mary Redman had, at her own expense, built a cottage on the property, containing six rooms, outhouses and kitchen and had generally organised the running of the farm. Mary Redman did not of course live 30 years to enjoy "life on the farm" on "Stoneless Bay." Over the years the farm seemed to be referred to as "Mrs. Redman’s Farm".
It is interesting to note that this part of the District was actually occupied and worked as a farm so early in the history of the Canterbury Municipality. I believe it has been generally thought that occupation of the outer area was confined closer to Canterbury Road, or the Government Trust Road as it was at first called, after Prout's Bridge opened up the lands between Cook’s River and George's River. Possibly the Redman family gained access to their property easier and earlier by crossing Cook's River from the Enfield side directly on to their land.
I think it quite possible that, as children, some members of that family surely would have travelled out from Sydney and spent some time there. You could speculate that, if there were such a thing as school holidays in that Victorian age (I believe there were, though not as long as nowadays) part of the holidays may have been spent at "Stoneless Bay" or even "Johns Farm". I firmly believe this because the Redman family never quite lost its identity with Canterbury. The other Estates in the area, that passed to the Redman children, were mostly occupied by them, even though they had business interests in Sydney.
According to "Lowes Sydney Directory 1844-45", Mrs Redman was a Landholder of 130 Liverpool Street, Sydney, and of "Mrs. Redman’s Farm", Cook's River. It appears that the Redmans moved at some time from George Street to Liverpool Street. Another early reference is an 1855 Petition for a Post Office at Canterbur. One of the signatures is that of John Redman, possibly the eldest son, who received his share of land in the area.
Mary Redman died in February, 1859, leaving a family of four sons and two daughters, according to "The Sydney Morning Herald". The obituary notice said "her whole life was devoted to the moral and material welfare of her children. God graciously permitting her to see them all educated and married".
So "Stoneless Bay" lost its mistress, but by then Robert H. B. Redman had married. His wife was also named Mary, to add a little confusion. The name Mary Redman still continued to be used in various instances to indicate the occupant of Mrs. Redman’s Farm at Canterbury. Robert and Mary Redman had four children, two boys, Robert George and Edward, and two girls, Alice and Mary Laura.
ROBERT HARRIS BLAND REDMAN died on 26th September, 1864. On the 16th September of that same year, when he was apparently very ill, he made a will. In this he directed that his wife and children were to receive equal portions of his Estate. But, four days later he must have had second thoughts, for on 20th September, he made another will, revoking the former one.
In the second will, he left the whole of his Estate to be divided equally among his children, with his wife, Mary, to have a life interest only. At this time his children were very young. The Estate was not wound up till the youngest turned 21 years of age. Probate was not granted till 1882.
During the process of Probate of the Will of ROBERT H. B. REDMAN being granted, a statement was taken from the witnesses of the last Will, dated 20th September, 1864. Witnesses were - Mrs. McCullock, sister of Mary Redman, and her husband, John McCullock; also a sister-in-law of Robert Redman, Mrs. William Redman. Mrs. McCullock said that when, after some thought, Robert Redman decided to make a second will, his brother William was called (William was a Solicitor). Together, just the two brothers only were in the room during the making of the Will that she (Mrs. McCullock) protested, as she felt it was not the right thing to do by her sister, who had worked hard to maintain the farm and had helped her husband in every way. Mrs. William Redman said she had also protested to no avail — so they both signed the Will. They also stated that Robert Redman was very ill and weak. He was then at the farm at Canterbury, but he was taken back to Sydney, where he died a few days later.
So this accounts for the name Mary Redman occurring for so many years in connection with Redman’s Farm. The second Mary must have lived and worked the Farm for many years while her children were growing up.
By the time Probate was granted, they must have decided to dispose of the Estate - so in May, 1888, the widow of Robert H. B. Redman and their children, Robert George, Edward, Alice (spinster) and Mary Laura Moylan and her husband, Stephen Patrick Moylan, agreed to the absolute sale of all the land to
William Edgar Harold Phillips
The price paid for "STONELESS BAY" was £10,215. After seventy years this choice 200 acres of land passed out of the Redman family to a gentleman, who described himself as a Freeholder of Sydney. The land had diminished a little, it was stated on the transfer to contain 179 acres, 3 roods, thereabouts.
William E. H. Phillips seems to have had several Companies, had acquired other estates of a similar nature to Stoneless Bay and engaged in Sub -division and Re-selling, for which he needed working funds of considerable amounts.
"STONELESS BAY" from then on ceased to be. In June, 1888, W. E. H. Phillips wrote to Canterbury Council under the heading of PHILLIPS & CO. -- forwarding a Tracing of the Sub-division Plan of their land "known as REDMAN'S BUSH".
From then on there were constant letters to the Council -- asking about the control of Burwood Road - the repair of the bridge over Cook's River, known as Hilly's -- and levels of the Avenues were discussed. In January, 1889, W. E H. Phillips, still as Phillips & Co., forwarded a Framed Plan of their HARCOURT ESTATE to Council and thanked them for their unfailing courtesy.
This was the first intimation that the Estate was now officially known as HARCOURT. Following this, was a strange request asking if the Council had a "few old water supply pipes" to lay on their Harcourt Estate.
Just a few months earlier, in October 1888, Phillips secured a loan. It appears that he had already secured £5,000 to affect the purchase, now he listed the Estate, together with three others, as security against a loan of £45,000 from the New Oriental Banking Corporation. A Statement to the Bank at the time regarding the property was as follows;-
:"Land all cleared, ploughed and sown with grass; bridges, culverts made, house erected (8 rooms brick) and grounds laid out; 13 miles of fencing, painting, etc.; road making, gravelling, excavating; :levelling, metalling, filling, trenching; erecting vases and pedestals, etc."
"Approx. Value - £8000 Selling Value - £10,764
Total sales to date -N/L @ £3 to £4 per ft.
Liabilities - £14,405 Min. Loan Value - £35,800 @ £200 per acre."
As it was just six months since the purchase, Phillip’s Statement was a bit incredible. He did plan a Model Suburb, and began to advertise it as such. A monthly magazine published an article, "Model Suburb, Harcourt Burwood". It gives a very colourful description of Harcourt, which it said was situated mid-way between Canterbury and Burwood - that access was easier from Burwood. There were 100 to 150 men working at one time, with a description of the work carried out, almost identical to the Statement Phillips sent to the Bank.
Coming from Burwood -----"along a mile-and –three quarters of straight, wide road, braced by the pure atmosphere, charmed by the singing of the birds in the surrounding bush; till we arrive at the solid and substantial bridge that the Proprietary have erected over Cook’s River, which forms the northern boundary. This brings us to the Eighth Grand Avenue (principal one from north to south), which is crossed at right angles by Fifth. Other avenues run parallel to these".
There is a description of trees planted, no big ones, one hundred and fifty varieties - all evergreens - "planted sixteen feet apart, while large, rich tufts of pampas grass occupy for a time the intervening spaces, to be eventually rooted up as the trees increase in size. Urns, to receive the cactus or agava, embellish the intersections of the avenues; everything about the property, from the massive bridges of tarred timber to the pretty villa cottage, which forms both an office on the Estate and an example of the kind of building that should be placed upon it--"
The article continued in the same style - "the Proprietary have introduced a principle, entirely novel to Australia, so far as I am aware, of giving Building Bonuses. The sum of £10,000 has been set aside for distribution in five years' time in the shape of bonuses".
W. E. H. Phillips could not have found a more difficult period to invest in property. The early 1890's suffered a bad recession in the economy, property investment was perhaps hit hardest of all. Phillips was constantly on the hunt to obtain money and any assistance to help develop his Harcourt Estate. In the middle of 1889, he had asked Canterbury Council to make representations to the Government to place some money upon estimates, for the repair of Burwood Road. During 1890, Council received many requests from him for assistance to complete work on the Estate.
The Dedication of the Avenues came under question. The Council requiring certain works to be completed before this could be done, agreed to participate in the costs. For instance, a stone arched culvert and bridge in Seventh Avenue, at the intersection of Third Avenue, was estimated to cost £800, and Council asked the Vendor to contribute £600 towards the cost.
Phillips was obviously having difficulty in meeting all expenses, his vision of Harcourt as a "Model Suburb" was slowly fading. No money appeared to be coming in, due possibly to the fact that, until the Avenues were Dedicated, no sales could be" implemented. There seems only to have been reservations on some of the Lots.
At the end of 1890, Harcourt Estate was transferred to the Burwood Land Building & Investment Co. Ltd.; the New Oriental Banking Corporation still seemed to hold the Mortgage. In April, 1891, Canterbury Council was informed that Harcourt Estate should now be rated to Burwood Land Investment Co. A series of letters now passed between Council and Burwood Land Building & Investment Co., regarding always costs involved for all the projects Council were working on. Council always had some difficulty in obtaining payments of the Rates.
By the end of 1891, it was decided that the Estate had reached a stage of completion worthy of having its Avenues Dedicated. At the Canterbury Council meeting of 21st October, 1891, it was recommended that the Avenues be taken over and Dedicated with reservations, on the completion of certain works. This appears to have been carried.
So 1892-93 and 94 passed with very little communication with Canterbury Council, it seems that Harcourt stood still during those difficult years. W. E. H. Phillips may have had some interest in the Burwood Land Building & Investment Co., but apart from a few letters to Council, regarding accounts, we hear no more. By 1895, the Burwood Land Building & Investment Co. was shaking on its foundations; in the middle of 1896, when it was possibly going into liquidation, the first sale of Lots on the Estate was registered.
The Estate appears then to have been administered by a Committee from New Oriental Banking Corporation and former Directors of Burwood Land Building & Investment Co. A new Sub-division Plan was printed, and the Estate was given to Messrs. Richardson & Wrench to auction. In January 1897, this advertisement appeared in a local paper:-
HARCOURT at CAMPSIE STATION”
"Avenues are wide and Boulevarding formed
at great expense to a past owner, very
desireal* preliminary part of work is done
and will be appreciated.
Estate has to be realised to close account
of Liquidator of the Company.
Free Train-tickets on day of sale.
Auction by Richardson & Wrench.
30th January, 1897-"
(* This is as was printed)
"Two Residences Harcourt
Attractive neat cottage, Brick Terra-cottar colour,
tuckpointed, slate roof, good accommodation.
Land--Two acres, near Station, on the hill.
Brick, Lot 279, (1/4 acre) Fourth Avenue,
four rooms, kitchen and veranda.
To be sold by Richardson & Wrench".
Previous to this, as mentioned before, on 27th July, 1896, the first land sale was registered. It was to Henry Pickard, he purchased three Lots in Second Avenue. A few days later on 31st July, two Lots were purchased in Eighth Avenue by Jos. B. Olliff, then in December, one Lot to H. E. Jordan in Fifth Avenue. Thus at the end of 1896, eight years after being Subdivided, these were the first Lots to be registered and given a Certificate of Title.
Two Residences were mentioned in the Land Sale Advertisement. The "cottage on two acres" was possibly the one that shows on both Sub-division Plans, on the southern side of Ninth Ave.,it was reasonably close to the Station. By this I believe the house was already there before Sub-division. When Phillips sent a Statement to New Oriental Bank, you may remember he claimed "house erected (8 rooms brick)". I believe this house may have been the Redman Family home, erected much earlier.
The other cottage, "Lot 279 in Fourth Ave.", was possibly the one mentioned in the Centennial Magazine "pretty villa cottage" which had been erected to use as an office and to show what kind of building could be erected. The three Lots Henry Pickard bought were down at the end of Second Ave., with a total area of 1 1/2 acres, sloping to the Cook's River. The house had to have extensive foundations, due to this land -slope. The cellars had nearly as large an area as the house, you could walk in comfortably. They were all brick, as was the house, also there was a solid brick retaining wall, to make an upper yard at street-level, and, down on a lower level, reached by steps, was another large bricked in area. The house which was built right out to the footpath was the only one on the Estate to be built that way. It seems strange that Henry Pickard, although a builder, chose this spot, when he had the choice of the whole of Harcourt.
I am of the opinion that there had already been a dwelling there, that foundations, if not part of the house, were already there. The foundation brickwork was always considered very old. Recalling the mention in early Documents of the Redmans; of houses on the property, it is a distinct possibility that, by the lay-out, it had earlier than 1896 been an "occupation site". The house is still there, although considerably altered.
The Auction Sale in January, 1897, must have been a disappointment, finance was most likely still difficult to obtain, also, at that time, nearly every suburb had "choice lots for sale". The Estate in eight years would have returned to its former bush state. What of the trees, the shrubs, the garden Avenues with their pedestals, etc.? Council, even before this time, was being called on to repair the ornamental arch that had been erected in Fifth Avenue.
During the next four years, till the end of 1900, only 25 sales were effected; some of the buyers purchased two Lots, so we could say, in that time, possibly thirty Lots were sold. From 1901, land sales did increase greatly, although it was many years before Harcourt was fully built on.
My parents purchased the Pickard property in 1911, from there it was possible then to see Campsie Station and the Railway Line, and they told us that, for many years, to get to the Station, the quickest way, was just to cut across the paddocks.
The advertised "house and 2 acres" was purchased by John Rowan in July, 1899. It was always known as "Harcourt House", and was situated well back off Ninth Avenue. Some years later, John Rowan cut up the 2 acres into eight building blocks, and a short access Avenue was formed, it was named Harcourt Avenue. The old house was demolished only five or six years ago, to make way for home-units.
The other advertised cottage, on Lot 279, was purchased in September, 1900, by Annie Challinor, wife of John Challinor.
So in time Harcourt did become a reality. If not a "Model Suburb", it could now be called a "Mini Suburb". It has its own Public School. Churches have been erected to serve the population. The Avenues are all sealed, footpaths and kerbs are substantial and solid. In the last few years, much work has again been done on the Seventh and Third Avenues "culvert". Some years back, the Council planted trees in all the Avenues and formed gardens in the centre of Eighth Avenue. It even boasts a park now, called Harcourt Park.
I wonder if William. Edgar Harold Phillips would recognize to-day the Estate he envisaged, nearly ninety years ago, in 1888, or what of John Redman, I wonder what he envisaged way back in 1817, almost one hundred and sixty years ago?
Nora K. Peek
Historical Records of Australia Series I & III
Sydney in 1848, Joseph Fowle, Sydney.
Lowes Sydney Directory 1844-45
Sub-Division Plans, Canterbury & District Historical Society.
Index of Wills, Society of Australian Genealogists
Sydney Morning Herald
Centennial Magazine, 1889 - 90, Mitchell Library
Advertiser (Ashfield) 1897, Ashfield & District Historical Society
Post Office Historical Section Records.
Land Title Records, Registrar General's Dept
Uncat. Mss., Documents, transactions, Simpson & W.E.H.Phillips 1888.
Uncat. Mss., Minter&Simpson, Solicitors,
I would like to thank Mr. Whitmarsh, Town Clerk, of Canterbury Council, for allowing me access to Council Records, also the Office Staff, for their assistance.
ATTACK BY NATIVES - PUNCHBOWL 1809
Early settlers in our district were having trouble with the Aborigines in 1809, according to reports in the Sydney Gazette.
By grants of November, 1809 (1) , William Bond and Frederick Meredith were given 50 acres, and 120 acres of land respectively.(As the report in the Sydney Gazette is before that date, they must have been in occupation before the date of the grant.) William Bond's grant is bounded approximately by the present Victoria Road, Wiggs Road, Cullens Road, Rose Street and Viola Street at Punchbowl. His neighbour on the west was Frederick Meredith, whose grant is bounded approximately by Punchbowl Road, Canterbury Road, Moxon Road, Salt Pan Creek, Cullens Road and Rose Street.
This item appears in the Sydney Gazette of Sunday, 1st October, 1809 (2):
"On Tuesday last, a number of natives assembled about the farm of Mr. Bond, at Georges River, and behaved in a very outrageous manner. They manifested an inclination to plunder but were prevented by the determination that was shown to resist them. They threw several spears, one of which grazed the ear of Mr. F. Meredith, who assisted in the defence of the place, which it was at length found necessary to abandon. Tidbury is said to have been one of the assailants."
When Governor Macquarie arrived in New South Wales, he revoked all land grants made by the insurrectionary government which had operated from when Governor Bligh was deposed. Bond and Meredith had to return their deeds, but they asked for re-grants.
Bond's petition pointed out that he had been twenty-two years in the colony and had recently received the deeds of 50 acres of land, "from which he was at first driven off by the Natives, with a providential escape for his life.(3)
Meredith said that he had "narrowly missed being speared through the temple by the Natives." (4) Governor Macquarie agreed to these requests, and the new grants dated from 1st January, 1810. (5)
B. J. Madden, Kingsgrove.
References: (1) Historical Records of Australia, Vol 7, P.308
(2) "Sydney Gazette", 1/10/1809, p. 2, column 1.
(3)Archives Office N.S.W. 4/1821, page 29.
(4) Archives Office N.S.W. 4/l822, page 218.
(5) Historical Records Aust., Vol 7, P.437/8;
Archives Office 7/447, pp. 8 & 18.
I could write a hundred books about the boys of this district but this time I restrict my story to part of one day in the life of two of them; Charlie N. and Charlie S.
It was a working day - business as usual in the shops, what few of them there were in 1900, and it should have been school as usual too. There wasn't any school here and the closest was a long way off for little legs.
The top end of Campsie was beautiful then. There had been three sub-divisions started: the Mildura Estate, the Campsie Park Estate, and the Harcourt Estate, but the top end was practically untouched.
The boys planned to explore Manewell's Bush, Beamish's Bush and further to the west Mooney's Bush. That, they thought would be enough for one day. It was the time of the year that the wattles were in full bloom. When swayed by the wind and touched by the sun those acres and acres of yellow seemed truly a golden, dancing fairyland.
"Let's make some money", said Charlie to Charlie. Charlie agreed. They pulled two huge bunches of blossom, forked them across a long stick which they heaved to their shoulders, then marched one after the other to Sydney, seven miles distant.
After trying their luck a few times they found a buyer, the proprietor of a fish shop in George Street, near the end of Harris Street.
Back they walked to Campsie, a total of fourteen miles - all for one shilling, sixpence each. It had been a very good day.
CAMPSIE PUBLIC SCHOOL
In July, 1907, the Minister for Education approved the establishment of an Infants School in the suburb of Campsie, on land being obtained for the- site. The school Opened in the Kia-ora Hall on 20th July, 1908, and grew rapidly thereafter.
However, it is interesting to note that there was a Campsie Public School long before 190;$ this Campsie school was in the Maitland district and was in existence from about 1846. In a letter dated 15th November, 1849, to the Secretary Board of National Education, Mr. James Dalglish of Campsie, Paterson, asked for information on having the school, which had operated on his property for the previous four years, come under the Board's control. It did not become a National school until 1853, but apparently it had continued to operate between 1849 and 1853. The property was known as Campsie, near the Allyn River and in the Paterson River district.
Campsie School operated from 1853 to 1859, in 1862-3, and from 1864. The name of this school was changed from Campsie to Trevallyn in December, 1907, probably because of the decision to establish a school in the suburb of Campsie. It then continued as Trevallyn Public School until 1922, and thereafter at various times until it finally closed in 1938.
B. J. Madden
RECOLLECTIONS OF EARLY CAMPSIE
Mr. Cecil Crockford.
Mr. Cecil Crockford of 46 Barremma Road, Lakemba, was born in 1893. In 1895, the same year that the railway opened to Belmore, the family moved to Campsie, to a rented house in Shakespeare Street, next door to the Presbyterian Church (this was the first Presbyterian Church in Campsie, it later moved to its present site in Evaline Street.) Since then Mr. Crockford has lived in the district continuously, except for war service - over 80 years in the same area. Early in the 1900's, Mr. Crockford's father built a two-roomed house in Clissold Parade. The house was later converted from a skillion roof to a hipped roof, and is still standing, next to the Australian Gaslight Company garage, the first house from the hotel on the corner of Beamish Street.
When Mr. Crockford's father told his mother that he was moving to Campsie, she "went crook" on him, saying that the blacks would get him and his family! His father was a storeman in the City. There was only one train in the morning taking people to work in Sydney, and another train in the afternoon to bring them back. The Station Mistress would sell tickets for the morning train, go home for a sleep and have lunch, and return to the Station for the afternoon train. Mr. Crockford remembers Campie Station had an entrance in North Parade, about 1900. There was a bridge over the railway line, but he does not know when the entrance from the bridge was put in.
Mr. Crockford's first memory is of attending a Sunday School in Beamish Street (now Brighton Avenue) in 1899 at the age of six. Mrs. Burdett and Mrs. Truscott started the Sunday School and some of those who attended were Alf., Hettie and probably Jack Truscott, Fred Mercier, Jim Long bottom and Emily Crockford, who was only four years old. In 1900, a Methodist Church was built opposite Mrs. Burdett's, and they all transferred to Sunday School there. Mr. Crockford's father was one of the first Trustees. Mrs. Burdett became one of the teachers, but Mrs. Truscott became very ill and could not carry on Mr. Crockford still has the three book prizes he won in 1902, 1904 and 1905.
Mr. Cecil Crockford attended school at Croydon Park for a few years, and then went to Canterbury School. This was before a school was established at Campsie.
Beamish Street was a dirt track when he was a boy, and the roadway had ruts a foot deep. Sometimes the sulky wheels could not get out of the ruts. Canterbury Road was in good condition as it was a main artery. There were many houses on the northern side of the railway line, but these were scattered and there were many vacant blocks between them. On the southern side of Canterbury Road opposite Beamish Street were slaughter-houses. These extended down the hill to Clemton Park. One was Sylvesters. Another slaughter-house was at Belfield near Rudd Park this was later Varidells Dairy.
The Quigg family lived next to the slaughter-house in Canterbury Road. Mr. Crockford went to school with Stan Quigg. The Quiggs had a large two-storey house, which was still there until recently. The Troy family were next door to the Quiggs.
On each side of Beamish Street were Beamish's Bush, and Manewell's Bush. Beamish's Bush was on the western side, from Canterbury Road to the present Fire Station (Claremont St.) and the photo, of the Band the Mr. Crockford showed to Canterbury & District Historical Society was taken there.
Manewell's Bush extended from Beamish Street to Wonga Street. Beamish's Bush had a wide variety of wild birds and some very pretty birds were to be seen. There were also snakes. Mr. Crockford, as a child, would go with his uncle after school to get wood for the iron stove. He took his billy-cart and axe. The family had a pile of firewood over five feet high.
From Beamish's Bush, in the hollow of Beaumont Street, Evaline Street, Amy Street, Anglo Road, and right through the Avenues, ran a creek. In the Avenues it formed into small ponds, and the young boys with a short pole, a piece, of thread and a bent pin, fished for eels.
In those days this part was all open country, with no houses or streets. On the top of the hill, about where the Campsie Bowling Club now stands, was a goat-herd, where goats' milk could be obtained. This was run by people named Smith, and their son, Seddon, was one of Mr. Crockford's mates.
There was a large Army camp on the southern side of the railway line between Campsie and Canterbury. This was roughly in the area between Evaline Street and the railway line, and from the river to Harold Street. In the period from about 1900 to 1907, Army reserves or National Services trainees, came to the camp for fixed periods (say a month), and lived in tents. All along Cooks River, from Enfield to Croydon Park and Canterbury, were Chinese gardens. Mr. Crockford recalls that as children, they used to sneak down and swim across the river to steal vegetables, and he says that they often got a charge of salt-petre fired at them! A little further away at Chullora, was the Devil's Bend. Here the bush was so thick that it was difficult to get through it. The children thought that if they went in, they would never get out again.
Grocers in Campsie around 1900 were Len and Gertie Cumming at the corner of Beamish Street and Ninth Avenue; C. Smith (Frank, George) in Beamish Street, opposite Ninth Avenue; Mrs. Templeton in Shakespeare Street and Mrs, Norris, corner of Browning Street and Brighton Avenue.
There was no doctor or chemist. Dr. Woods of Ashfield, usually did the rounds in his pony and sulky, Campsie residents had to walk to Ashfield, via Goodlet's Bush (now Ashbury) for medicine from Mr. McKimm, chemist.
There was a galvanised iron, open-air picture theatre in Beamish Street, nearly opposite Ninth Avenue. This was owned by the Slater Brothers. The silent pictures had plenty of flicker when you were sitting close, so it cost 3d. at the front and 6d. at the rear. If it rained, you got your money back.
The only hotels in the district were the "Woolpack" at Canterbury, and the "St.George" at Belmore. There was a regular drinker at the "St. George" who frequently had to be put in his sulky and sent home. He would sing at the top of his voice and the pony would take him home along Canterbury Road and Beamish Street to the bottom of Clissold Pde. There the pony would stand at the front door and whinny until the man's wife dame out to collect her husband.
A volunteer Fire Brigade was formed in 1907, opening in a small shed in Beamish Street opposite Amy Street, where Woolworths store now stands. Mr. Crockford’s father was Captain of the Brigade. Mr. Cecil Crockford joined in 1910. The only equipment was a hand-reel which had to be dragged to the fire, and, as he puts it "if you had any energy left, you fought the fire."
In 1912, the Station was transferred to the present site at the corner of Claremont and Beamish Sts. They then were supplied with a one-horse turn-out. The horse was one of the wildest they had and had already smashed two engines in the City! When he got out of the Station, it was a case of "hang on and pray he would not turn the business over!" When a permanent Captain was required, Mr. Crockford's father resigned, as he had a good position and would not take on the permanent job. The Firemen were paid 15/- a month for one night on duty each week, and three shillings for two drills' a month, and two shillings an hour or part thereof If required to fight a fire. A Captain was paid 10/6 a day for a seven day week and lived on the premises.
The members of the Fire Brigade in 1907 were; Captain: A Crockford; W. Bell, H. Smith, Attenborough, J. Harding, E. Davis, W. Turner, F. Schuman.
In the early 1900's, there was an Ambulance Station in a small weatherboard room on the northern side of Campsie Station, There was one Ambulance Man, Mr. Woods. Mr. Crockford passed his First Aid examination in 1912 and was a helper. The only equipment was a litter, a stretcher on wheels with a hood over the top.
A few other boys would help, and Mr. Crockford recalls pushing the stretcher from Campsie to Western Suburbs Hospital. He also went to Belmore a couple of times. The litter was taken to Campsie Station, where the wheels were unscrewed and the unit put on the train to go to Belmore, where the wheels were screwed back on, and the litter then went to the house. With the patient aboard, it returned to Belmore Station, the wheels were removed and the unit placed on the train for the journey to Campsie, the wheels were replaced and then the litter was pushed.to Western Suburbs Hospital. In 1909, Mr Cecil Crockford was the first, member of the Town Band, then known as the Campsie Band, The members of the Band were;
In 1914, the Band won the “C” Grade Championship.
When he returned from the War in 1919, Mr. Crockford re-joined the Band, which played in the main street (Beamish Street) on the Friday late shopping nights. In 1921, the Band won the "B" Grade Championship of Australia.
Notes: It may interest readers to know that Mr. Crockford went overseas in 1916 with the 36th Battalion Band (Carmichael's Men). He served for 3 years and 3 months as a stretcher-bearer. He was wounded in 1917 and returned to England until the end of the War.
JOSEPH HOLT & CANTERBURY 1800-1801
"General" Joseph' Holt was a leader of the Irish rebels in 1798 and he was exiled to New South Wales, arriving on 11th January, 1800. Captain William Cox was a fellow passenger, and Holt accepted the position of Manager of Brush Farm for Cox. Canterbury was added soon after. Holt was finally pardoned and returned to Ireland. His memoirs were written from notes he made in 1813 and were published in 1838. The memoirs are in two volumes, the first dealing with his career in Ireland and the second his time in New South Wales.
Referring to before September , 1800, on page 97 of volume 2, is this note about Canterbury--
"Mr. Cox purchased from "(Rev. Richard Johnson)" his estate, which joined Brush Farm. It consisted of 600 acres of land, about 150 sheep, a mare and 3 fillies, and some horned cattle. This purchase increased my ride to about 12 miles; there was in it about 2 acres of vineyard, which, some years, bore abundantly; and another acre covered with large orange-trees, early nectarines, peaches, and some apricots. The place was called Canterbury; it was about 5 miles from Sydney. I pruned the vines and the fruit-trees, and now I found my early instruction in gardening of great use to me. Mr. Cox wished to have a handsome place here, and we began to build a large, dwelling house.
Every Saturday I rode to Brush Farm and settled with the men there....I thus managed both estates to Mr. Cox's perfect satisfaction."
Referring to October, 1800, page 132——
"At this time I had 80 acres planted at Brush Farm and 24 at Canterbury,"
In November, 1801, page 145--
"There were two sawyers, three carpenters, two stone-cutters, twenty labourers and three shepherds at Canterbury."
B. J. Madden. Kingsgrove.
FIFTEEN MINUTES FROM SYDNEY
Some of the navvies employed building the railway extension from Canterbury on to Belmore lived with their families in railway-owned tents along the track. When the job ended at Belmore in 1895 they had to live somewhere else, so many moved to "Struggle Town."
Struggle Town, eh! Where was it?
It was that large area of scrub land bounded by Clissold Parade, Beamish Street and Cook's River and which later became known as "Mildura", short for "Mildura Estate Campsie.
The ex-navvy squatters just settled wherever they fancied. The houses "knocked up" by those handy fellows were of scrub saplings with opened-out kerosene tins tacked on. There was no shortage of empty four gallon tins. They could be found in their thousands on the rubbish heaps of other towns, for "kero" was the main source of light for nearly everyone those days.
The makeshift, rusty, patchwork dwellings spoke not only of impermanence but of the brave struggle against poverty by those resourceful people. Plenty of eels and carp helped to keep down the cost of living. Did you ever catch eels on a dark, dark night? I still shiver at the very thought of it.
The tin humpies gradually had to give way to the axe and plough as the developers cleared the scrub and marked out the streets.
You are interested in the street names? Well, here are twelve of them:
Adam, Lindsay, Gordon, Cowper, Moore, Burns, Dryden, Browning, Shakespeare, Shelley, Tennyson, Byron.
Of course you "woke up" after the first three, didn't you? Just let's call it "Poets' Corner" as everyone else does. There’s a charm about that name, I feel.
This was the first part of Campsie to grow as a town. Proper houses were built, some with a front room used as a tiny shop. A small Methodist Church appeared in one street; a building for Presbyterian services and a tent as a temporary meeting place for Anglicans in another; a Post Office in the side verandah of a house in another; the Kia-ora Hall for Lodge meetings, dances and parties in another, and a six cow dairy between two others.
And passing by this new settlement, the fresh water of Cook's River - when not in flood flowed gently, cool and clean, bordered by tall she-oaks, some standing straight, some overhanging, all along its pretty banks to the old Sugar Works weir, then tumbled over it. From there onwards the water inevitably ebbed and flowed twice daily as Nature meant it to do.
POST OFFICE IN KINGSGROVE
In 1804 the name "King’s Grovne" was given to a grant of land to Hannah Laycock. It was a rectangular block of 500 acres, and was bounded by Kingsgrove Road, William Street, Bexley Road and a continued line to Preddys Road and Stoney Creek Road and a continued line back to Preddys Road south of Canonbury Grove„ The name gradually became the one word "Kingsgrove".
The first Kingsgrove Post Office was established on 1st February, 1870. It followed the opening of Post Offices at Canterbury in 1858, Kogarah in 1863 and Gannon's Forest (Hurstville) in 1864. It preceded Post Offices opened in Arncliffe in 1878, Belmore (then in Canterbury Rd. , Wiley Park) in 1879 and Rockdale and Bexley in 1882.
The first Postmistress was Mrs. Peninah Mary Favell, a surname well-known in the St. George district. Her sureties were Walter Favell, husband; George Charles Tompson, writing clerk; and Thomas Miller, freeholder; all of Kingsgrove. Her salary was £12 per annum.
The location of the Post Office is not known. The notice in the Government Gazette on the establishment of the Post Office refers to it as at Kingsgrove, near Canterbury. This suggests the northern side of the present suburb, rather than the southern. Possibly it was near the corner of the present Bexley Road and Homer Street, as around this time the Tompsons owned "Bexley" which was north-east of that corner. Also one Miller had land in Homer Street, near Bexley Road.
George Charles Tompson became Postmaster on 21st April, 1870, and the office was closed on 1st September, 1870.
Kingsgrove Post Office was re-established on 15th June, 1883, in charge of David Lewis, who was paid £10 per annum. His sureties were James McBean, grocer, and Edwin Tyrell Sayers, clerk, both of Canterbury. Sands Directories from 1884 to l887 1ist either Kingsgrove Post Office, or David Lewis, carrier and Postmaster, or Mrs. Elizabeth Lewis, Postmistress, as being in the Post Offices in Kingsgrove.
In September, 1884, Lewis named new sureties: Morgan Davies, Lime Merchant of Petersham; and Stephen Clifton, contractor, of Ashfield.
Charles Astley Smith became Postmaster on 23rd September, 1885, although Sands Directories still listed David Lewis (or Louis) as carrier and Postmaster as late as 1887. In 1887 and 1888, but not in 1886, Sands Directories list Charles A. Smith storekeeper in Homer Street, south side, between Sharpe Street (now Kingsgrove Road) and Old Illawarra Road (possibly where Flatrock Road met Northcote Street near the present intersection of Homer Street and Bexley Road). This Post Office closed on 20th June, 1887.
In 1919, Kingsgrove Post Office re-opened at an entirely different location. It was in Stoney Creek Road, on the Croydon Road side of the Kingsgrove Baptist Church. It is at times stated as being opposite the Public School. The address is usually given as 213 Stoney Creek Road. 175 Stoney Creek Road is sometimes mentioned, but this appears to be a re-numbering of the same location.
The railway line from Tempe to Kingsgrove was opened on 21st September, 1931, and the extension to East Hills on 21st December, 1931. However, development near Kingsgrove Railway Station was slow for some years. In June, 1936, when there was a request for a new non-official Post Office near the station, the Postal Inspector said that there was only one store in Croydon Road (now Kingsgrove Rd.) near the station, and the district was very sparsely settled. There was a daily letter delivery and a telegram delivery from Hurstville, and letters could be posted at a letter box at the corner of Croydon Road and Morgan Street.
By 1940, when further representations for a Post Office were made, steady development had occurred.
The Inspector said that there were 17 shops, 3 in course of construction and others about to be commenced. He continued; "There are approximately 520 residences within half a mile of the Kingsgrove railway station. The majority of these houses are of a good type and have been erected within the past three years. Building expansion is still taking place within this area, and is expected to continue for some little time,” At this time, letters, for the district were being delivered from Hurstville, Bexley, Earlwood and Belmore.
The P.M.G.'s Department agreed to open the new office, and arranged a meeting of residents to determine the most suitable names for the new and the old offices. It was agreed that the new Post Office should be called "Kingsgrove" and the Office in Stoney Creek Road be called "Benhill." It would be interesting to know why this name was selected. Two years later, its name was changed to "Bexley West". It closed on 31st October, 1968.
Reverting to the new Kingsgrove Post Office in Croydon Road (now Kingsgrove Road): Mrs, R. M. Glover who conducted a mixed business at 301 Croydon Road proposed to conduct the Post Office at the adjacent premises, Number 299, which were then occupied by Mr, M. H. Todd, an Estate Agent. However, as a married woman, she was ineligible for the appointment.
Eventually, Mr. M. H. Todd was appointed Postmaster, and the Kingsgrove Post Office was established on 5th August,1940. It was located in premises at the corner of Croydon Road and Mashman Avenue, near the Railway Station. Money Order facilities were provided from 1st October, 1940, to coincide with the transfer to the Post Office of the Commonwealth Savings Bank Agency, formerly conducted by Mr. J. J. Brocklehurst, an Estate Agent.
As the district developed, postal business increased considerably, and by April, 1943, approval was given for the employment of a full-time assistant. Up to 3rd July, 1944, when a local delivery was commenced, telegrams for the district were delivered from the adjoining official Post Offices at Belmore, Bexley, Campsie, Earlwood.
Mrs. Mary C. Fleming was temporarily appointed Postmistress on 1st July, 1947, pending arrangements to raise the status of the Office to that of official Post Office. Because of the exceptional rate of post-war building, Kingsgrove had become a large and important suburb. The transfer to official conditions was delayed by the difficulty in erecting a building because of the shortage of building materials. Temporary accommodation was provided by the erection of a former Army hut.
Approval was given for the introduction of official conditions at Kingsgrove on 15th January, 1951, and arrangements were made for Mr. L. E. Johnson to take charge of the Office. Mr. Johnson's staff comprised a Postal Clerk, Indoor Postal Officer, four Postal Officers (Delivery), and a Junior Postal Officer.
A new and modern Post Office building was officially opened on 30th August, 1971. This was a little over 100 years after the establishment of the first Post Office at Kingsgrove.
(Much of this information is from material kindly supplied by the Historical Office, Australian Post Office.)
B.J. Madden, Kingsgrove
References to Belmore before the opening of the railway to Burwood Road in 1895, are to an area different from the present-day suburb of Belmore.
As a name for a locality, Belmore is presumably called after the Earl of Belmore, who was Governor of New South Wales from 1868 to 1872. He arrived in Sydney on 7th January, 1868, and became Governor the next day.
It was not long before the name Belmore was being used by the people of the present-day suburb of Punchbowl. On 5th January, 1869, a Local Committee applied to the Council of Education for the establishment of a Public School at "Belmore, Post Town, Canterbury", and the proposed location of the school was described in the application as "at Belmore - Canterbury Road near Salt Pan Creek, four miles from Canterbury". The Schools' Inspector, in his report, said; "Belmore is situated on the Canterbury and Georges River Road about half a mile on the Canterbury side of the Salt Pan Creek".
The building to be used for the school was a new building erected for a place of worship by the Church of England residents. This would be on the present site of St. Saviour's Church of England in Canterbury Road, Punchbowl, a short distance from the present Punchbowl Public School, and almost opposite Belmore Road.
The full story of the development of the school will be told separately, but one or two items are relevant to the name of the district. In 1879, the school transferred to a new site on the southern side of Canterbury Road at the present King Georges Road Intersection. The school retained the name of Belmore until 1907, when its name was changed to Belmore South. On 2nd June, 1910, its name was changed again, this time to Lakemba. Lakemba Public School moved to its present site in 1913.
An 1884 map in the Mitchell Library shows the name Belmore on the area around Canterbury Road in the present suburbs of Wiley Park, Punchbowl and Riverwood. Mr. Jervis, in his History of the Municipality of Canterbury, page 65, mentions D. Tucker's model farm at Belmore being known as Forest Grove. Old maps show the Forest Grove Estate at the present day Punchbowl in the area bounded by Canterbury Road, Punchbowl Road and King Georges Road, and the name Tucker appears as the owner of blocks in this area.
When the railway line was under construction, it was known as the Marrickville (now Sydenham) to Burwood Road Railway. Jervis (page 34) tells us that Canterbury Council initially proposed the name St. George for the terminus station. After much argument, it agreed to the name Belmore, and the line opened in 1895.
It was not until 19th August, 1907, that a Post Office was opened near Belmore railway station. It was given the name Belmore, and the Post Office which formerly carried the name of Belmore, by this time situated in Canterbury Road, between Chapel Street and Flora Street, was re-named South Belmore. South Belmore became Lakemba on 1st June, 1910.
It will be seen that the extension of the railway from Belmore to Bankstown in 1909, with the naming of the stations at Lakemba and Punchbowl, led to the change of the name of the school and Post Office from Belmore South to Lakemba in 1910. Punchbowl Post Office opened on 1st August,1913. The old district of Belmore had been re-named and the new suburb of Belmore around the railway station was confirmed with the name adopted forty years previously for a different area.
WHEN THE HORSE & HORSE-DRAWN ERA ALMOST CAME TO AN END
By 1895 the railway line from Sydney, seven miles away, had reached Campsie and gone on to Belmore. Trains were few but sufficient to get passengers to work in the mornings and bring them home in the late afternoons.
Habit, however, did not permit some people to change their mode of travelling immediately that the rail service became available. It took some of them many years to make that transition.
One Campsie man whom I admired immensely rode a beautiful horse from here to St. Peters and back daily, not to save a penny or two; he did not need to; he was the brickworks manager.
Another, a professional man who was also one of my idols, was driven in the mornings to his surgery in Chippendale in a hooded sulky pulled by a fine chestnut. In the afternoons another twelve mile trip was made to bring him home.
By 1912, cars and light lorries were around in small numbers but horses still did much of the road transport work, if not the most of it.
The brickworks at Belmore commenced operations two years later. Owner-carters received a few shillings per tip-dray load for delivering to the numerous building sites. How those hefty, spirited draughts tugged their heavy loads, often to be bustled back at a very fast walk for their next load. Yes, I remember the horses, the little ones, the big ones, the light ones and the heavy ones.
There were the sulkies, the buggies, the hackney carriages, the hansom cabs, the coaches, the butchers' carts, the milkmen's carts, the grocers' carts, the butter-men's carts, the tea-men's carts, the fruiterers' carts, the sturdy tip-drays, the wagonettes and wagons for carrying all sorts of necessities and other goods, the night-soil carts, the pantechnicons, the horse buses and of course other vehicles galore.
To the above lists one more group, I feel, deserves special mention - the horses and the light spring carts, often called traps, of the street buyers and hawkers. There were the bottleohs calling:
"Rags! abags! Abottuls!"
the rabbitohs sing-songing:
"Rare – bits! rare – bits!
a shillin' na pair fresh rare –bits!"
and the clothes-line prop sellers yelling sometimes in high pitched tones:
"Prurps! Prurps! close-prurps!" or in their deep throated froggy ones:
"Prop! prop!Prop- prop!"
The farriers and vehicle makers were busy people.
I remember the day a rider kicked a foreleg of his pony. It lay down on the Campsie Railway Bridge causing much laughter and embarrassment. He did not know, till later, that it had been a circus pony and it had only obeyed an order when kicked on that spot.
Have you ever heard that racing sound of the shod hoofs of a driverless bolting horse a quarter of a mile away and approaching, then the shattering sound as its cart "takes" a corner too sharply and hits a pole, more shattering as another pole is hit on the next corner and the next? The noise always ceased as the horse reached home or tired and was caught dragging perhaps a shaft and a half and a few bits of broken harness. Some horses just could not stand, being tethered for long to the hitching rails or chains in front of the pub.
Saddle horses sometimes became stirred up a bit too - I remember some sorry occasions.
It was in the decade leading up to 1920 that this era rushed, then staggered almost to its end.
Times had changed. Government High Schools had been introduced; more speed and efficiency than ever before had become possible.
Motor vehicle drivers and riders demanded smooth road-surfaces.
Dirt roads had to go; and with them the deep furrows cut by horse shoes and steel tyres.
Chaff was "out"; petrol was "in "
THE DISTRICT IN 1848
A facsimile edition of an 1848 publication "A Geographical Dictionary or Gazatteer of the Australian Colonies" by W. H. Wells, was published by the Public Library of N.S.W. in 1970. Browsing through the book, it is fascinating to read that Paddington is a village near Sydney, that Brisbane is a town in N.S.W. at Moreton Bay with a population of 960, and that Boyd Town is a flourishing sea port on S. E coast of N.S.W.
Some 1848 properties have given their names to suburbs and towns, and others have been forgotten. Some old spellings are interesting, such as Nammoy for the present Namoi River and Maneroo for Monaro.
This is list of entries refer to the present Canterbury Municipality and adjoining area. Because of their length, some entries have been abbreviated, and some abbreviations have been used;
- p. St. G. = parish of St. George;
- p. Conc. = parish of Concord;
- p. Pet. = parish of Petersham;
- co. C. = county of Cumberland;
- h. Syd. = hundred of Sydney.
ALBERT PARK. In p. Con., co. C, N.S.W., on the Liverpool Road, seven miles from Sydney.
ASHFIELD. A village of N.S.W., situate in p. Con., co. C. and h. Syd., about six and a half miles from Sydney.
BEXLEY. In p. St. G., co. C., N.S.W., about three miles from the Canterbury Sugar Works.
BOTANY BAY............the spot first touched by Captain Cook........
BOTANY BAY. An old district of co. C., N.S.W., bounded on the S.E. side by Botany Bay; on the N.E. side by Cook's River; N side by the Liverpool Road; on the W side by a line passing from Hacking's Creek Bridge, to the head of the Salt Creek, in George’s River, Old road; and thence by that Creek, and on the S side by the George’s River.
BRIGHTON. In p. Con.., h. Syd., and co. C., N.S.W., about eight miles from Sydney, on the Liverpool Road.
BULLANAMING. One of the old districts of co. C., N.S.W.; bounded on the N by the Sydney and Parramatta Road, from Iron Cove Creek to Blackwattle swamp bridge; on the E side by a S line to Botany Bay; on the S side by Cook's River; and on the W by Liberty plains district.
CANTERBURY. A village of N.S.W., situated p. Pet., h. Syd., co. C., about five miles from Sydney, on the banks of Cook's River. It contains 65 houses and 218 inhabitants, viz., 128 males and 90 females. Here is the establishment of the Australasian Sugar Company.
CLAIRVILLE. (or Punchbowl); the property of Sir Alfred Stephen, situated in the parishes of St. G. and Banks Town, co. C., N.S.W., about nine miles from Sydney. It is situated, in a sort of basin, surrounded by gently rising ground; hence the name of Punchbowl.
CONCORD. A parish in h. Syd., co. C., N.S.W. bounded......on the S by Cook's River to the S.E. corner of Simeon Lord's 800 acres, by the eastern boundary of that land to the Liverpool Road ........by the centre of that Road to...........Parramatta Road..........It contains 216 houses, and a population of 1172.
COOK’S RIVER. In co. C., N.S.W., dividing the parishes of Pet. and St. G., about six miles from Sydney. It falls into Botany Bay.
CUMBERLAND. A county of N.S.W.......This is the Metropolitan county of N.S.W......contains 73,538 inhabitants,....... This county is divided into 13 hundreds and 56 parishes.
CUP AND SAUCER CREEK. In p. St. G., co. C., N.S.W.; it flows into Cook's River, opposite the Sugar House.
GEORGE TOWN. A village of N.S.W., in p. St. G., h. Syd., co. C.,; it is the point of land stretching out into Botany Bay at the mouth of Cook's River.
GEORGE TOWN. A village in the parish of Banks Town, h. of Liverpool, co. C., and situated on the N bank of George's River, and bounded on the E by Salt Pan Creek, which joins the George's Riv. at the spot.
KINGS GROVE. In p. St. G., co. C., N.S.W., about nine miles from Sydney.
LIBERTY PLAINS.A parish........co.C......... .
LIBERTY PLAINS One of the original districts of co. C., N.S.W., bounded on the N side by the Sydney Road leading to Parramatta; on the W side by a south line passing to the Liverpool Road; on the S side by the Liverpool Road and Cook's River to Johnstone's farm; on the E by Johnstone's, Lucas's and Piper's farm to the head of Iron Cove Creek on the Liverpool Road, thence by that Creek to the Parramatta Road.
LIVERPOOL.(An incorporated district, a borough town, and a police district).
LIVERPOOL. A hundred of N.S.W., situated in co. C. ........it is bounded on the N by Cook's River from the centre of the road at the E corner of J. Alford's 60 acres, to the centre of Moore's bridge on the Liverpool Road, by the centre of the Liverpool Road to the centre of Bowler's bridge over Prospect Creek...; on the E by Woronora River to its confluence with George's River, by George's River to Saltpan Creek, by Saltpan Creek to the centre of the road which forms the S. Eastern boundary of Harriet Carr's 30 acres, and by the centre of that road to Cook's River; comprising the parishes of Bank's Town, St. Luke, Minto, and Holsworthy.
MAYFIELD. In p. St. G., co. C., N.S.W., about eight miles from Sydney; the property of Thomas May.
PETERSHAM. A village of N.S.W., near the City of Sydney.
PETERSHAM. An original district of co. C., N.S.W., bounded on the south side by the Sydney and Parramatta Road, from Iron Cove Creek to Blackwattle swamp bridge; and on all other sides by the Harbour of Port Jackson.
PETERSHAM. A parish in the hundred of Sydney, and co. C., N.S.W., is bounded......by the centre of part of the Liverpool Road (from its junction with Parramatta Road), by a line from the centre of that road bearing S. 6 degrees E. to the north-eastern corner of Simeon Lord's 800 acres, by part of the eastern boundary of that land by the western boundaries of John Piper's 100 acres, J. H. Lucas's 100 acres, by a line thence to the north-west corner of Richard Johnson's 260 acres to Cook's River; on the south side by Cook's River to the branch of that River forming the eastern boundary of Thomas Smith's 470 acres;...... (It includes) three island on that part of Cook's River bounding this parish. It contains 1284 houses and 5433 inhabitants, viz., 2935 males and 2498 females.
PUNCHBOWL. See CLAIRVILLE.
ROCKY POINT. In p. St. G., co. C., N.S.W. on George’s River, about twelve miles from Sydney.
SAINT GEORGE. A parish in the hundred of Sydney, in the co. C., N.S.W.; it contains 132 houses, with a population of 611; and is bounded on the N by Cook's River from Botany Bay to the center of the road to the N. corner of Joseph Broadbent's 40 acres; on the W by the center of the above mentioned road which forms the north-west boundaries of Joseph Broadbent's 100 acres, William Goodwin's 50 acres, and John Nichols's 100 acres to the head of Saltpan Creek at the W corner of John Nichols's 100 acres, and by that Creek to its confluence with George's River; on the S by George's River to Botany Bay; and on the E by Botany Bay to Cook's River.
SNUGBOROUGH. The property of Mr. Oatley, in p. St. G. , co. C., N.S.W., on the George's River Road, about eleven miles from Sydney.
WANSTEAD. In p. St. G., co. C., N.S.W., about seven miles from Sydney, on Cook's River.
WINCANTON. The estate of Reuben Hannam, in p.St. G., co. C., N.S.W., about seven miles from Sydney, via Cook's River Dam.
(There is no entry for George's River, Lord's Forest, Moorefields, Saltpan Creek, or Wolli Creek.)
B.J. Madden, Kingsgrove.
CANTERBURY & DISTRICT HISTORICAL SOCIETY meets on the FOURTH TUESDAY OF EACH MONTH At 7.30 P.M ON THE SECOND FLOOR of the COUNCIL CHAMBERS
137 BEAMISH STREET, CAMPSIE.
GUEST SPEAKERS - FILMS - TOURS
VISITORS ARE ALWAYS WELCOME ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION:
Mr. R. Lloyd,
18 Garnet Street
Mrs. T. M. Roberts
77 Banks Road,